Saturday, July 21, 2018

Funding Opportunity of the Week: National Endowment for Democracy

Women participating in an election in Timor-Leste. Photo by Sandra
Magno of the UN Development Programme. Click for credit.
This week's funding opportunity comes from the National Endowment for Democracy. According to their Website, it is their goal "to strengthen democratic institutions (including political parties and business, labor, civic, education, media, human rights, and other groups that are working for democratic goals) around the world through nongovernmental efforts." This private non-profit is very active in that it gives out thousands of grants a year to support democracy development in the United States and abroad.

There are quarterly submission opportunities (September 29, December 22, March 16, and June 22) available and they are particularly interested in funding projects that:


  • Promote and defend human rights and the rule of law
  • Support freedom of information and independent media
  • Strengthen democratic ideas and values
  • Promote accountability and transparency
  • Strengthen civil society organizations
  • Strengthen democratic political processes and institutions
  • Promote civic education
  • Support democratic conflict resolution
  • Promote freedom of association
  • Strengthen a broad-based market economy
They also work within six basic purposes:


  • to encourage free and democratic institutions throughout the world through private-sector initiatives, including activities which promote the individual rights and freedoms (including internationally recognized human rights) which are essential to the functioning of democratic institutions;
  • to facilitate exchanges between United States private-sector groups (especially the two major American political parties, labor, and business) and democratic groups abroad;
  • to promote United States nongovernmental participation (especially through the two major American political parties, labor, business, and other private-sector groups) in democratic training programs and democratic institution-building abroad;
  • to strengthen democratic electoral processes abroad through timely measures in cooperation with indigenous democratic forces;
  • to support the participation of the two major American political parties, labor, business. and other United States private-sector groups in fostering cooperation with those abroad dedicated to the cultural values, institutions and organizations of democratic pluralism; and
  • to encourage the establishment and growth of democratic development in a manner consistent both with the broad concerns of United States national interests and with the specific requirements of the democratic groups in other countries which are aided by programs funded by the Endowment.
The National Endowment for Democracy has funded a number of organizations (including universities) and individuals around the world.

Thursday, July 12, 2018

United Nations Week. Post 5. What Cave and Karst Scientists Can Contribute to the Remainder of the Sustainable Development Goals

Photo by Bob Brinkmann.
Yesterday, I wrote about how the international cave and karst community can contribute to achieving SDG6 which focuses on water and sanitation. Today, I focus attention on how the cave and karst community can help achieve the other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Before continuing on with this post, it may be useful for readers to go back to the first post in this series here which lists all of the 17 SDG's.

One of the great things about the cave and karst community is that it is so well interconnected through professional organizations and cave clubs. As a result, we have a tremendous ability to marshal an international effort to create positive change in the world. As noted earlier, I focused yesterday on how we can focus initiatives on SDG6 which focuses on water. Below, I highlight some ways that we can contribute to the remainder of the goals.

SDG3. Good Health and Well-Being. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. One of the targets of SDG3 is "By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination." One of the indicators of this target is to assess the "mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services)".  This goal ties very much to the water goals outlined in yesterday's post. However, there is a specific cave and karst community response (CKCR) that could be developed: 
3.1. CKCR:  Evaluate the world karst map and assess in terms of water born illnesses to determine how the karst community can help with public health interventions.

SDG4. Quality Education. Insure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. There are several targets that can be addressed by the cave and karst community under the education goal. However this target, "By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development" with this indicator, "Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights, are mainstreamed at all levels in: (a) national education policies, (b) curricula, (c) teacher education and (d) student assessment" has the most relevance for the CKCR. 
4.1.CKCR:  Develop formal, informal, and public educational initiatives on cave and karst systems that embrace sustainability and the SDGs. 
4.2.CKCR: Ensure that cave and karst systems are included in education on climate change and the carbon cycle.

SDG5. Gender Equality. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. There is one main target where the cave and karst community can assist with gender equity. "Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life" and there is one CKCR that can assist with reaching the goal:
5.1.CKCR. Ensure that cave and karst organizations have equitable leadership by gender and that women are in positions of authority.

SDG8. Decent Work and Economic Growth. Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. There is an interesting target in this indicator that is rather significant for the cave and karst community, "By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products". This indicator provides opportunities for the cave and karst community to support cave and karst tourism.
8.1.CKCR: Develop cave and karst tourism assets to assist with job growth and economic development.

SDG11. Sustainable Cities and Communities. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. The cave and karst community is very interested in insuring that our communities are sustainable. While there are several targets with which we could engage, there is one main target under SDG11 that we can address:  "Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage". So many of karst landscapes contribute to our natural heritage and we must work to protect and preserve them.
11.1.CKCR: With the support of the world karst map, identify key karst areas at risk from development and advocate for their preservation and protection.

SDG12. Responsible Consumption and Production. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. While it may not seem like there is much we can offer here, there are opportunities to look inward to verify that we are walking the walk. The target of significance is, "Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle". We can respond with:
12.1.CKCR:  Ensure that cave and karst organizations including cave clubs adopt sustainable practices and report to their members their sustainability initiatives.

SDG15. Life on Land. Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss. There are several targets that the cave and karst community could address under this particular SDG, but there is one main one that covers most of the issues of concern to the cave and karst community, "By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements." While cave and karst systems are not specifically mentioned, there is no doubt that the unique biodiversity in caves and karst landscapes need to be understood and protected.
15.1.CKCR:  Study, conserve, and restore the unique ecosystems found in cave and karst systems.

SDG16. Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels. There are a number of indicators within this SDG, but one is useful for consideration by the cave and karst community, "Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels." This indicator has been used by many groups, including indigenous groups, women, the disabled, and the LBGTQ community to address many concerns about equity with the SDG process.
16.1.CKCR. Ensure that cave and karst organizations are welcoming and open to participation by all including indigenous groups, women, the disabled, and the LGBTQ Community.


17. Partnerships for the Goals. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. While much of this goal is focused on national level cooperation and funding, there is one key indicator important for the cave and karst community, "Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism." As a result, one potential CKCR is:
17.1.CKCR. Develop and enhance cooperation among cave and karst organizations around the world.

Taken together, these CKCR's to the Sustainable Development Goals provides a framework and agenda that can help any cave and karst organization participate with the international effort to promote global sustainability.

A complete list is below that includes the ones that were developed yesterday in response to SDG6. Obviously, this list is a draft, incomplete, and up for discussion. Not all organizations will be able to do all things on this list. However, it is worth considering how the cave and karst community can respond to the SDGs in a clear and systematic way.


Cave and Karst Community Responses (CKCR) to the Sustainable Development Goals

3.1. CKCR:  Evaluate the world karst map and assess in terms of water born illnesses to determine how the karst community can help with public health interventions.

4.1.CKCR:  Develop formal, informal, and public educational initiatives on cave and karst systems that embrace sustainability and the SDGs. 

4.2.CKCR: Ensure that cave and karst systems are included in education on climate change and the carbon cycle.

5.1.CKCR. Ensure that cave and karst organizations have equitable leadership by gender and that women are in positions of authority.


6.1.1. CKCR:  Support organizations locally and internationally that are working to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.


6.1.2. CKCR:  Evaluate the world karst map and our own communities to assess key karst regions where there are challenges with access to safe and affordable drinking water. Support agencies in these areas that are seeking to improve access to water.

6.1.2. CKCR. Support organizations locally and internationally that are working to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.


6.2.2. CKCR.  Evaluate the world karst map and our own communities to assess where there is not access to equitable sanitation and hygiene for all. Find ways to either improve sanitation or support agencies working in these areas.

6.3.1. CKCR. Continue and enhance surface and groundwater monitoring in karst areas and share the monitoring data widely with the public and government agencies so that it can be evaluated over time.


6.3.2. CKCR. Advocate for reduction of point and non point pollution in karst watersheds.

6.4.1. CKCR. Advocate for sound planning of water resources in karst areas to ensure sustainable groundwater withdrawal and to protect surface ecosystems.

6.4.2. CKCR. Advocate for water conservation and water efficiency projects in cave and karst regions.

6.5.1. CKCR. Work to map karst watersheds and communicate the implications of transboundary issues to government officials and water managers to facilitate cooperations among regions on sound surface and groundwater management.

6.6.1. CKCR. Identify key areas for restoration and protection in cave and karst areas by identifying a list of international, national, and local priorities for attention. 


6.6.2. CKCR. Work with other stakeholders to restore and protect top areas identified in 6.6.1.

6.A.1. CKCR. Begin a new international education initiative aimed at creating greater understanding of cave and karst landscapes aimed not only at the public, but at key decision makers.


6.A.2. CKCR. Advocate for the inclusion of karst systems within youth curriculum.

6.A.3. CKCR. Accelerate informal education efforts through clubs, Websites, and public lectures.


6.B.1. CKCR. Provide opportunities for local communities to participate in cave and karst events, particularly those aimed at conservation or improving water and sanitation management.


6.B.2. CKCR. Create contacts with local, state, and national government officials to engage them with community initiatives.

8.1.CKCR: Develop cave and karst tourism assets to assist with job growth and economic development.

11.1.CKCR: With the support of the world karst map, identify key karst areas at risk from development and advocate for their preservation and protection.

12.1.CKCR:  Ensure that cave and karst organizations including cave clubs adopt sustainable practices and report to their members their sustainability initiatives.

15.1.CKCR:  Study, conserve, and restore the unique ecosystems found in cave and karst systems.

16.1.CKCR. Ensure that cave and karst organizations are welcoming and open to participation by all including indigenous groups, women, the disabled, and the LGBTQ Community.

17.1.CKCR. Develop and enhance cooperation among cave and karst organizations around the world.

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

UN Week Part 4. What Cave and Karst Scientists, Managers, and Educators Can Contribute to Sustainable Development Goal 6 Water and Sanitation

A mural near the Security Council at the United Nations. Photo
by Bob Brinkmann.
As noted in yesterday's post, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 is one of the most significant goals of the entire list of all 17 SDGs. Water is such a universal issue that many this week at the UN's High Level Political Forum on the SDGs are suggesting that it needs greater prominence, or at least connectivity, within the discussions taking place at the United Nations. Since I am representing the International Union of Speleology this week at the forum, I thought it would be useful to review what cave and karst scientists, educators, and policy makers around the world can do to support and advance SDG 6. Of course SDG6 is not the only place where the cave and karst community can make a difference, so tomorrow I will review how we can support other Sustainable Development Goals. Today, however, I focus my attention on SDG6 targets and indicators. I highlight the cave and karst community responses (CKCR) within the context of each target and indicator below.

The international cave and karst community is extremely talented and connected. By marshaling our time and talent, we can make a significant contribution to achieving the targets outlined in SDG6.

6.1. Target: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
6.1. Indicator:  Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services
While most of us in the cave and karst community are not involved in providing access to safe and affordable drinking water, it is important for us to consider how we can be advocates for this goal.
6.1.1. CKCR:  Support organizations locally and internationally that are working to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all.
6.1.2. CKCR:  Evaluate the world karst map and our own communities to assess key karst regions where there are challenges with access to safe and affordable drinking water. Support agencies in these areas that are seeking to improve access to water.


6.2. Target:  By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
6.2. Indicator:  Proportion of population using safely managed sanitation services, including a hand-washing facility with soap and water
Many people live on karst landscapes that have poor sanitation and hygiene. This is particularly an issue because so many karst areas are in rural communities without access to urban infrastructure. The cave and karst community responses parallel those for Target 6.1.
6.1.2. CKCR. Support organizations locally and internationally that are working to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
6.2.2. CKCR.  Evaluate the world karst map and our own communities to assess where there is not access to equitable sanitation and hygiene for all. Find ways to either improve sanitation or support agencies working in these areas.

6.3. Target:  By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 
6.3.1. Indicator:  Proportion of wastewater safely treated
6.3.2. Indicator:  Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality
The cave and karst community is particularly suited to address Indicator 6.3.2. Many of us regularly sample surface and groundwater through our efforts.
6.3.1. CKCR. Continue and enhance surface and groundwater monitoring in karst areas and share the monitoring data widely with the public and government agencies so that it can be evaluated over time.
6.3.2. CKCR. Advocate for reduction of point and non point pollution in karst watersheds.

6.4. Target:  By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 
6.4.1. Indicator:  Change in water-use efficiency over time
6.4.2. Indicator:  Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources
Water management in karst areas is always problematic. Many traditionally trained hydrologists do not fully understanding the complex nature of karst systems. Thus, the cave and karst community has much to add to this target.
6.4.1. CKCR. Advocate for sound planning of water resources in karst areas to ensure sustainable groundwater withdrawal and to protect surface ecosystems.
6.4.2. CKCR. Advocate for water conservation and water efficiency projects in cave and karst regions.

6.5. Target:  By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
6.5.1. Indicator:  Degree of integrated water resources management implementation (0-100)
6.5.2. Indicator:  Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation
Because the surface topography does not match the actual groundwater basin in karst areas, it is important to engage water managers and government officials on the nature of karst watersheds. 
6.5.1. CKCR. Work to map karst watersheds and communicate the implications of transboundary issues to government officials and water managers to facilitate cooperations among regions on sound surface and groundwater management.

6.6. Target:  By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 
6.6. Indicator:  Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time
The cave and karst community has been very active in protecting and restoring water related ecosystems in karst areas. 
6.6.1. CKCR. Identify key areas for restoration and protection in cave and karst areas by identifying a list of international, national, and local priorities for attention. 
6.6.2. CKCR. Work with other stakeholders to restore and protect top areas identified in 6.6.1.

6.A. Target:  By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies 
6.A. Indicator:  Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan
This target is, in part, about education. The cave and karst community can take a bigger step forward to help to educate a variety of stakeholders about the significance of cave and karst landscapes to our water systems.
6.A.1. CKCR. Begin a new international education initiative aimed at creating greater understanding of cave and karst landscapes aimed not only at the public, but at key decision makers.
6.A.2. CKCR. Advocate for the inclusion of karst systems within youth curriculum.
6.A.3. CKCR. Accelerate informal education efforts through clubs, Websites, and public lectures.

6.B. Target:  Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
6.B. Indicator:  Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management
The cave and karst community has excellent ties to local communities and can be a strong partner in improving community participation in improving water and sanitation management.
6.B.1. CKCR. Provide opportunities for local communities to participate in cave and karst events, particularly those aimed at conservation or improving water and sanitation management.
6.B.2. CKCR. Create contacts with local, state, and national government officials to engage them with community initiatives.

This list of CKCR's is certainly a draft and it could be edited and/or expanded. However, I believe that it is important that the cave and karst community consider how to advance the SDG's in measurable ways. We have much to contribute to the long term sustainability of the planet.

Tomorrow, I will look to see how the cave and karst community can support the other sustainable development goals.



Tuesday, July 10, 2018

UN Week Part 3. An Introduction to Sustainable Development Goal 6. Ensure Availability and Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation for All

Photo by Bob Brinkmann.
While all of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are important, in my mind, SDG 6--Ensure Availability and Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation for All--is one of the most important of them all (note: to review all the goals, please see the first post in this series here). Water is an overarching theme for so many issues in the overall sustainable development agenda that it is worth taking a look at this particular goal to better understand some of the key issues associated with it.

First of all, SDG 6 is a complex goal. It is made of many subgoals that are worth examining. It consists of several targets and associated indicators. For those of you unfamiliar with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals framework, each of the goals has targets and measurable (hopefully!) indicators that can be used to assess progress toward the targets.

Here are the targets and goals for SDG6:

6.1. Target: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
6.1. Indicator:  Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services

6.2. Target:  By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
6.2. Indicator:  Proportion of population using safely managed sanitation services, including a hand-washing facility with soap and water

6.3. Target:  By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 
6.3.1. Indicator:  Proportion of wastewater safely treated
6.3.2. Indicator:  Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality

6.4. Target:  By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 
6.4.1. Indicator:  Change in water-use efficiency over time
6.4.2. Indicator:  Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

6.5. Target:  By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
6.5.1. Indicator:  Degree of integrated water resources management implementation (0-100)
6.5.2. Indicator:  Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation

6.6. Target:  By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 
6.6. Indicator:  Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time

6.A. Target:  By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies 
6.A. Indicator:  Amount of water- and sanitation-related official development assistance that is part of a government-coordinated spending plan

6.B. Target:  Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
6.B. Indicator:  Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management

As you can see from the above indicators, SDG6 is huge. It includes access to clean and healthy drinking water as well as wastewater management. It includes water resource management and international cooperation and capacity building.

As I have pointed out several times in this space over the years, many parts of the world are running out of fresh water and the impacts on society and the environment are being felt. Work on this indicator is crucial to the overall sustainability of our planet.

Tomorrow, I will take a look at what cave and karst scientists, managers, and educators can do to advance SDG6.

Monday, July 9, 2018

UN Week. Part 2. Key Critiques of Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) reviewed yesterday mark a significant advance in how we approach global sustainability. They have provided a strong framework for measuring, benchmarking, and assessing sustainability around the world. However, there are many critiques of the SDGs. I want to review three of them today.

1. Not everyone is participating. While many countries have stepped up to make a difference in trying to advance the initiatives outlined in the SDGs, many have not. Some of these nations have large impacts (most notably the United States) and it frustrates other nations that some of those with the largest consumption do not engage the world in trying to make it a better place. It is hard to advance sustainability around the world if we do not work together.

2. Human rights are not clearly present in the SDGs. While the SDGs were advanced within a human rights framework, in practice, human rights issues have been somewhat sidelined in the rush to work on SDGs. Some of the goals, like eliminating hunger and developing gender equality have implied human rights initiatives. However, human rights are not front and center. Given the growing concern over human rights around the world, many are worried about this problem.

3. Finally, one of the great things about the development of the 17 SDGs is that they clearly identified that main themes of concern in sustainable development. However, their identification did create a bit of siloing of themes. For example, issues of water and energy are within separate goals. But around the world, energy has a huge impact on water use and management. Many have noted that it is crucial that linkages be made among the goals whenever possible.

There is quite a bit of discussion this week at the UN's High Level Political Forum around concerns related to the SDGs. Are they working? Some are questioning whether or not the SDGs are truly effective given the issues (among others) I outlined above.

Sunday, July 8, 2018

United Nations Week. Part 1. Sustainable Development Goals

Click for photo credit.
While I am on vacation this week, I have the honor of representing the International Union of Speleology as a Major Group and Stakeholder at the High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development at the United Nations. I will be providing regular blog updates from the event. To kick of United Nations Week on On the Brink, I want to list the UN's Sustainable Development Goals.

1. No poverty. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
2. Zero Hunger. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable development.
3. Good Health and Well-Being. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
4. Quality Education. Insure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
5. Gender Equality. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
6. Clean Water and Sanitation. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
7. Affordable and Clean Energy. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable modern energy for all.
8. Decent Work and Economic Growth. Promote sustained, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
9. Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation.
10. Reduced Inequalities. Reduce inequality within and among countries.
11. Sustainable Cities and Communities. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable.
12. Responsible Consumption and Production. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
13. Climate Action. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
14. Life Below Water. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development.
15. Life on Land. Protect, restore, and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss.
16. Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.
17. Partnerships for the Goals. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

I will be focusing my time at the UN on the sixth goal, Clean Water and Sanitation. To read more about the Sustainable Development Goals, click here.