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But, there is also a big debate going on in the monarch butterfly research world as to whether or not the monarchs are true navigators or whether they are taking advantage of prevailing winds and travel in straight lines. Read all about that debate here. The trigger for migrating north and south? Temperature. Read all about the temperature issue here. This book chapter has a very nice review of conservation challenges for butterflies. It is not looking good for these fragile insects. The populations of many species are on the decline, habitat is being lost, and the range of the insects is getting smaller.