Monday, July 26, 2021

Meatless Monday Part 3: Five Favorite Go To Meals

I am continuing my Meatless Monday Series today with a look at some of my favorite Meatless Monday go to meals. Links to the previous posts in the series are at the end of today's post. 

We all have favorite meals, but for some reason, even though I grew up in a Midwestern meat and potatoes kind of environment, vegetarian meals are among my go-to's when I want something that satisfies my appetite. I love the texture and crunch of vegetables and like them cooked or raw. Of course, as a native Wisconsinite, I also like cheese and dairy products. Thus, I can be pretty happy with vegan and vegetarian foods. For today's post, I thought I would share with you some of my all time favorite Meatless Monday foods that I like to make at home. 

1. Greek Salad. I love all kinds of salads, but the kind of Greek salad with just tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, red onions, oregano, Kalamata olives, and feta is my all time favorite. It is so easy to make and serve with a red wine vinegar dressing. You get plenty of protein from the feta, but you could leave it out and add some garbanzos to go totally vegan.

2. Vegan tamales. Tamales are super easy to make and most recipes produce tons of them that you can freeze or use for the week. Tamales consist of two parts:  a masa outside soft shell dough and filling. You can use any vegetable as a filling. For example, you could use black beans, sautéed vegetables, or any other stewed or soft vegetable. Traditionally, the masa is made with corn flour, salt, baking powder, water (or broth), and lard. All you have to do to make the tamales vegan is to replace a small can of pumpkin puree for the lard in any recipe you find. To add flavor, you can make a spicy sauce to go with the tamales. Yummy!

3. Pea pakora. Pakora are a bit similar to tamales or Chinese dumplings in concept. They are essentially small pies made with a simple thin dough filled with vegetables of your choosing. The fillings in theese Indian delicacies are often spiced with a delicious mix of garam masala, cinnamon, cumin, and other spices. The dough is usually made by mixing flour, vegetable oil, water, and salt together. Small pieces are rolled thin and filled and then baked. For the filling I usually use green peas or broccoli. Unlike dumplings or tamales, they are baked, not steamed. I like them with a cucumber yogurt sauce.

4. Vegetable stir fry. Veggie stir fries are easy and highly versatile depending upon the vegetables you have on hand. I typically use garlic, ginger, onions, green and red peppers, mushrooms, celery, Napa cabbage, and some canned vegetables like baby corn or bamboo shoots. I sometimes will add in some baked or raw tofu. I like to whip up a big batch so I have it for lunches for the week.

5. Grilled cheese and tomato sandwiches. While the examples above all can be easily vegan, the star in in my grilled cheese is Wisconsin cheddar. I like a couple of nice slices of sharp cheddar and a nice thin slice of a fresh beefsteak tomato between Vienna bread or a nice hearty farm bread. You can add a couple of basil leaves to kick it up a notch. Toast it on both sides in some butter in a cast-iron skillet and you just made a Meatless Monday flavor bomb.

I could go on and on about my love for this kind of food and I could eat salads for almost every meal. But this list gives you some idea about how I approach Meatless Monday main dishes at home. I would love to hear from you in the comments about your Meatless Monday favorites.

Previous posts in this series:

Thursday, July 22, 2021

Proposed Carbon Tax on Import Appears Dead--But What Is It?

Click for image credit.
The New York Times, in a recent article by Lisa Friedman, notes that a proposed carbon tax on imports appears dead in the water in congress. This isn't a particular surprise given the polarization in the American political system right now. However, it is rather disappointing given that it is clear that we are seeing significant acceleration of climate anomalies and we are running out of time to get our carbon emissions under control.

Nevertheless, it is worth breaking down the nature of this type of import tax. Picture this scenario. In the U.S., we impose a range of environmental regulations on industries to ensure that we are keeping the environment clean. These regulations now include a variety of carbon reduction strategies. Let's say that you own a steel company and decide that it would be cheaper for you to manufacture steel overseas due to the lax environmental regulations in some countries. You can pollute to your heart's content and the national government won't impose any regulatory requirements. Thus, your costs for manufacturing the steel is cheaper and you put yourself at a competitive advantage compared to steel companies that are playing by the rules in the United States. 

There are all kinds of ethical issues with this type of behavior. Perhaps the most obvious issue is environmental justice. By moving your company from the U.S. to a place with lax environmental regulations, you are imposing what you would be prevented on imposing in your home country on another population.

However, now that we are looking more and more at the atmosphere as a commons issue, there are other ethical considerations that must be made. If you as an American move a company overseas to avoid American law so that you can pollute the global commons, you would be engaging in deeply unethical conduct. If you are unfamiliar with the term "commons" in this paragraph, it comes from the essay, The Tragedy of the Commons, by Garett Hardin, which was published by Science in 1968. Many governments have developed an ethical framework for managing our national and global commons through laws and regulations. If you move a company to a location that does not use such laws, you are abrogating your responsibility as a national and corporate citizen. In other words, you have gone rogue and lawless and hold no allegiance to your home country.

In such situations, nations can impose taxes or tariffs so that companies pay a cost for this unethical behavior. It looks like the European Union may enact such a policy in the near future. However, for now, the U.S. will continue to import materials that are produced by companies that take advantage of lax environmental and climate policy without penalty.

Wednesday, July 21, 2021

Organic Food Quiz

Click for photo credit.
July in the Midwestern United States finds farmers' markets brimming over with produce. I thought it was a great time for me to post a new On the Brink Quiz. This time, it is all about organic food. Check to see how much you know about organic food below. Links to other On the Brink quizzes follows the questions.

1. What organization regulates organic food in the United States?

2. Organic food emerged as a response to what type of agriculture?

3. The term "organic" was defined legally in the United States in which year? 

4. What percent of all food sold in the U.S. is considered organic?

5. What class of foods are responsible for the largest share of the organic market? 

6. Which country has the largest share of organic food sales in the world?

7. Organic farmland must be certified by experts that certify that pesticides and non-organic fertilizers are not used. Which country has the most certified organic cropland in the world?

8. While the country in question 7 has the most certified organic farmland, another country has the most exports of organic food. Name this major food exporting country? 

9. The main certifying agency from question 1 will certify 4 types of organic products:  crops, livestock, wild crops, and one other. Name the fourth type of product? 

10. According to US guidelines, how many years must a field use organic farming processes prior to harvesting in order to earn certification? 

Florida Python Hunt Nabs Giant 16-Foot Python

Florida Governor DeSantis kicking off the
annual python hunt. Click for image credit.
This blog has been following with great interest the rapid expansion of the Burmese python across Florida over the last several years. Indeed, my first post on this topic goes back to 2012. Since then, the python has greatly expanded across the state and wiped out lots of small and mid-sized mammals and other species. They have even been known to attack and eat alligators.

Each year about this time, the state encourages folks to head out and kill as many pythons as they can in an annual hunt. This is totally fine by me from a sustainability perspective. The pythons are invasive and have taken the niche spot of other predators that are missing from the landscape.  Make no mistake about it, the hunts barely make a dent in the number of pythons in Florida. There are tens of thousands of them across the state (some even estimate hundreds of thousands) and the hunt only brings in a relatively small number. Last year, the hunt only brought in about 60 pythons, although that number was probably low due to COVID. The biggest python caught last year was around 12 feet long.

News broke recently that hunters nabbed a 16 footer from the Everglades! Wowza. Check out the story with photos here. The pythons don't seem to be slowing down. All I can say is that we need a bigger boat (Jaws reference in case you don't get it).

If you search this blog for "python" you'll find lots of other Florida python content from over the years.

Tuesday, July 20, 2021

Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Monument

Today I continue my series on all 129 U.S. National Monuments. This is in follow up to my series that featured open access photos of all of the U.S. National Parks. In the coming years, I will highlight open access images all of the U.S. National Monuments in alphabetical order.

Today's featured monument is Harriet Tubman National Monument in Maryland. This is not one of the monuments that was under review for delisting as per executive order by the former president. Following the photos is a list of U.S. National Monuments previously featured on this blog.

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Previous On the Brink posts on the U.S. National Monuments

Admiralty Island National Monument
African Burial Ground National Monument
Agate Fossil Beds National Monument
Agua Fria National Monument
Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument
Aniakchak National Monument
Aztec Ruins National Monument
Bandelier National Monument
Basin and Range National Monument
Bears Ears National Monument
Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument
Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument
Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument
Booker T. Washington National Monument
Browns Canyon National Monument
Buck Island Reef National Monument
Cabrillo National Monument
California Coastal National Monument
Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Cape Krusenstern National Monument
Capulin Volcano National Monument
Carrizo Plain National Monument
Casa Grande Ruins National Monument
Cascade Siskiyou National Monument
Castillo de San Marco National Monument
Castle Clinton National Monument
Castle Mountains National Monument
Cedar Breaks National Monument
César E. Chávez National Monument
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument
Chimney Rock National Monument
Chiricahua National Monument
Colorado National Monument
Craters of the Moon National Monument
Devils Postpile National Monument
Devils Tower National Monument
Dinosaur National Monument
Effigy Mounds National Monument
El Malpais National Monument
El Morro National Monument
Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument
Fort Frederica National Monument
Fort Matanzas National Monument
Fort McHenry National Monument
Fort Monroe National Monument
Fort Ord National Monument
Fort Pulaski National Monument
Fort Stanwix National Monument
Fort Union National Monument
Fossil Butte National Monument
Freedom Riders National Monument
George Washington Birthplace National Monument
George Washington Carver National Monument
Giant Sequoia National Monument
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
Gold Butte National Monument
Governors Island National Monument

Sustainability Case Studies 23: Economic Development and Sustainability

Photo by Bob Brinkmann.
This is the 23rd post in this blog series, Sustainability Case Studies, that is based on the book The Palgrave Handbook of Sustainability: Case Studies and Practical Solutions edited by Robert Brinkmann (yours truly) and Sandra Garren and published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2018. Each post in the series will comment on the content of the chapter as well as some general take-aways or practical teaching or personal/organizational initiatives that could be gleaned from the chapter. Links to previous posts on the series (including the post that introduced the series) follow after the review.

This chapter is called Economic Development and Sustainability:  A Case Study from Long Island New York, by Robert Brinkmann (me). The chapter begins with a review of how economic development has been a part of our modern economic world for generations. From the Department of Commerce to state and local government economic development offices, governments are deeply involved in trying to advance national, state, and local economic interests. Many industry organizations are also involved. For example, the California Association of Wine Growers works to advance the economic agendas of their members. 

Brinkmann reviews a range of tools available to those involved with economic development including tax breaks, land use, direct investments, laws and zoning, technical assistance, infrastructure development, education, and political access. He also points out that there are distinct ways to measure the success of economic development interests such as in jobs created or number of businesses opened. However, there are distinct critiques of traditional economic development that are discussed within two themes:  opportunities for corruption and the fallacy of unending growth.

The chapters continues with a discussion of sustainability and economic development. Some major themes include public lands, water, energy, agriculture, food, transportation, building, land use, environmental justice, brownfields, pollution, and ecosystems. Businesses are searching for ways to become more authentic with their sustainability initiatives and are often searching for local partners where they can advance their business while enhancing local sustainability. For example, a large computer company may search for a location for a manufacturing site where they can help a region develop green energy sources. Or, a food company may wish to expand the amount of organic food they use by partnering with local food growers to ramp up their output. No matter the approach, sustainability is becoming a much bigger part of economic development in our modern era.

More natural assets of Long Island:  the impressive
beach. Photo by Bob Brinkmann, your author, on left.
The chapter focuses its case study on how the Long Island Regional Economic Development Council infused sustainability within a new innovative approach to economic development put forward by Governor Cuomo. After the downturn of the Great Recession, Cuomo divided New York State into several regions for distinct state investment. Each region created a council that was charged with working with local leaders to develop an agenda that would enhance and grow the economy. On Long Island, the local council decided to infuse sustainability and natural assets within their plan. Individuals and organizations (both for profit and non-profit) could submit projects that sought some degree of investment from the state. The organizations had to come to the table with personal or organizational funds. The projects that focused on sustainability or natural assets centered largely on agricultural enterprises, improving fisheries of shellfishing, and protecting natural assets like waterways and natural landscapes.

The chapter provides several examples of successful projects. For example, one project focused on growing the Peconic Bay scallop industry that declined decades ago. Improved water in the Bay suggested that reintroduction of the scallops in the Bay could greatly enhance the shellfishing industry in the area and the Long Island Economic Development team supported a range of initiatives to advance the restoration of the scallop industry.

The chapter notes that there are several lessons learned. Certainly economic development did not solve Long Island's sustainability problems. However, the fact that sustainability was infused in many of the projects was seen as a win for advancing a regional sustainability agenda. However, sustainability was not the only deciding factor in what got funded by the council. Some projects were funded that had negative impacts on the environment. In addition, because there were not clear sustainability benchmarking outcome metrics associated with the plans, it was hard to assess the overall success of the projects. Nevertheless, the Long Island region, which is largely considered suburban New York City, is one of the only suburban regions of the country to infuse sustainability within an economic development framework.

Click here for more information about the book.

Here are some class discussion questions when using this chapter for a unit on green economic development.

1. What are some local examples of how our community sponsors a particular type of economic development in our region?

2. What groups are involved in local economic development in our area?

3. Economic leaders are keen to get involved with economic development. How do you think economic development advocates can ensure that projects don't become a form of local greenwashing?

4. Given the State of New York's economic strength, why do you think Governor Cuomo put so much emphasis on economic development during the Great Recession?

5. Why do you think Long Island emphasized sustainability and other regions of our country do not?

6. Benchmarking of success of economic development is largely focused on job or business creation. What alternative benchmarking tools could be developed around two of the major Long Island sustainability themes of agriculture and fisheries?

7. One of the three themes of Long Island's sustainability approach was protection of natural assets. Why do you think protection of these natural assets were so important to those interested in economic development?

8. If we were to start a green economic development project in our region, what types of projects would we support?

Previous Entries in This Series

Monday, July 19, 2021

Opportunities Still Available for Chapter Authors in the Global Handbook of Sustainability

Click for photo credit.
As many of you know, I am editing The Palgrave Global Handbook of Sustainability, which will be one of the largest single publications in the field of sustainability in that it will have over 190 chapters on a range of subjects. The chapters will not be peer-reviewed, but instead will be published online after I complete a review and after they go through a copy editing process with Palgrave Macmillan. I suspect that once I get a draft of a chapter, I can turn it around within a week or two. The volume will exist online and edits can be made to your article(s) up until the completion of the entire volume (which I suspect will take a year or two). Once it is done, the entire volume will be printed. You can check out my introductory chapter to the book here. As I noted, the volume should prove to be one of the largest and most important sources of sustainability information every published.

If any of my sustainability writer readers are interested, I still have about 70 chapters available and unassigned. Take a look at the list of chapters below and see if there is a fit for your interests. I am also regularly adding chapters and some of you may have ideas for additional materials. Feel free to reach out to my at my NIU email or via other means. I will also be creating a Linked In group of authors of the book so we can share are own updates on our work.

Part 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Organization of the Knowledge of Sustainability
Part 2. Environmental Sustainability
            Chapter 3. Defining Environmental Sustainability and Major Earth Cycles (could be 2 chapters)
Part 2a. Energy 
            Chapter 4. Global Energy Use Forthcoming by Volkan Ediger, Kadir Has University
            Chapter 5. Oil and Natural Gas and Sustainability
            Chapter 6. Coal and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Sanne Akerboom, Universiteit Utrect
            Chapter 7. Nuclear Power and Sustainability, Forthcoming Aviel Verbruggen University of Antwerp and Ben Wealer, TU-Berlin
            Chapter 8. Solar Energy, Forthcoming by Anish Modi, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
            Chapter 9. Wind Energy
            Chapter 10. Hydroelectric Power Forthcoming by Bryan Karney, University of Toronto
            Chapter 11. Geothermal Energy
            Chapter 12. Other Green Energy Sources:  Wave, Tide, Current, etc.
            Chapter 13. Energy Conservation
Part 2b. Climate Change
            Chapter 14. The Science of Climate Change
            Chapter 15. The Evidence for Climate Change on our Planet
            Chapter 16. Greenhouse Gases and their Distribution and Production
            Chapter 17. Climate Change and the Spatial Distribution of Population Forthcoming by Dr. David Castells Quintana, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
            Chapter 18. Climate Change Challenges in the Arctic
            Chapter 19. The Evidence for Climate Change for Terrestrial Mammals Forthcoming by Dr. Melissa Grigione, Pace University
            Chapter 20. Greenhouse Gas Management
Part 2c. Water
            Chapter 21. Global Water Use Forthcoming by Dr. Hannes Müller Schmeid, Goethe University Frankfurt            
            Chapter 22. Water Resources:  Aquifers, Reservoirs, Lakes, and Rivers
            Chapter 23. Desalination Forthcoming by Dr. Gnaneswar Gude, Mississippi State University
            Chapter 24. Water Management
            Chapter 25. Innovations in Water Management: Agriculture
            Chapter 26. Innovations in Water Management: Industrial and Energy Applications Forthcoming by Dr. Helena Margarida Machado da Silva, Técinco Lisboa            
            Chapter 27. Innovations in Water Management:  Urban and Suburban Uses Forthcoming by Dr. Carlos Hiroo Saito, University of Brasilia
Part 2d. Natural Resource Management 
            Chapter 28. The State of the World’s Natural Resources Forthcoming by Dr. Gerry Nagtzaam, Monash University
            Chapter 29. Forests Forthcoming by Dr. Silvia Serrao-Neumann, University of Waikato
            Chapter 30. Wetlands Forthcoming by Dr. Carlos Hiroo Salto, University of Brasilia
            Chapter 31. Oceans
            Chapter 32. Prairies, Mountains, and Other Ecosystems
            Chapter 33. Endangered Species and Extinction
            Chapter 34. Parks and Public Lands
            Chapter 35. Ecosystems Services Forthcoming by Dr. Peter Mederly, University Kostantina Filozofa v Nitre
            Chapter 36. Urban and Suburban Ecosystems Forthcoming by Shannon Bassett, Laurentian University
Chapter 37.  Mining and Minerals Forthcoming by Józef Dubiński, Central Mining Institute in Katowice

            Chapter 38. Agriculture and Sustainability Forthcoming by Amer Ait Sidhoum, Technische Universität München
            Chapter 39. Organic Food
            Chapter 40. Local Food, Slow Food, and the Small Farm Movement Forthcoming by Dr. Hiran Roy, Fairleigh Dickinson University
            Chapter 41. Fish and Fisheries Forthcoming by Tahmina Ajmal, University of Bedforshire
            Chapter 42. Fish and Shellfish Farming
Part 2e. Waste and Pollution
            Chapter 43. Defining Waste and Pollution Forthcoming by Aarti Singh, Fore School of Management
            Chapter 44. Sewage and Sewage Treatment
            Chapter 45. Municipal Waste (Garbage) and Its Management Forthcoming by Dr. Christia Meidiana, University of Brawijaya
            Chapter 46. Industrial Waste and Its Management Forthcoming by Dr. Xiao Li, Yale School for the Environment
            Chapter 47. Medical Waste and Its Management
            Chapter 48. On the Sustainability of Graveyards in Urban Milieus Forthcoming by Dr. Zaheer Allam, University of Paris
            Chapter 49. Plastics Forthcoming by Dr. Tony Walker, Dalhousie University
            Chapter 50. Radioactive Waste Forthcoming by Dr. Céline Kermisch, École Polytechnique de Bruxelles
            Chapter 51. Air Pollution Forthcoming by Dr. Wilma Subra, Subra Company           
            Chapter 52. Water Pollution Forthcoming by Dr. Linda Schweitzer, Southern University Agricultural and Extension Center
            Chapter 53. Heavy Metal Pollution
            Chapter 54. Nutrient Pollution
Part 3. Sustainability and Equity
            Chapter 55. Defining the Social Equity Issues in Sustainability 
Part 3a. Sustainability in the Developing World
            Chapter 56. The State of Sustainability in the Developing World Forthcoming by Dr. Hrishikesh Venkataraman and Ms. Karpagam Dhandapani, Indian Institute of Information Technology
            Chapter 57. Human Rights Forthcoming by Dr. Florian Wettstein and Dr. Jordi Vives, University of St. Gallen
            Chapter 58. The Global South and Sustainability: Issues and Constraints Forthcoming by Dr. Innocent Chirisa, University of Zimbabwe
            Chapter 59. Islands and Sustainability 
            Chapter 60. Sustainability in Africa Forthcoming by Innocent Chirisa, University Of Zimbabwe 
            Chapter 61. Sustainability in Latin America and the Caribbean Forthcoming by Dr. Cerian Gibbes, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
           Chapter 62. Sustainability in Asia, Forthcoming by Shannon Bassett, Laurentian University
            Chapter 63. Health and Sustainability in the Developing World, Forthcoming by Dr. Yibeital Alemu, The University of Queensland
Part 3b. Environmental Justice and Racism
            Chapter 64. Background on Environmental Justice and Racism Forthcoming by Dr. Alice Kaswan, University of San Francisco School of Law
            Chapter 65. Social Equity Forthcoming by Sean McCandless, University of Illinois at Springfield
            Chapter 66. Indigenous Peoples and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Deborah McGregor, York University
            Chapter 67. Gender and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Musarat Yasmin and Dr. Muhammad SafdarUniversity of Gujrat
            Chapter 68. Environmental Racism in North America
            Chapter 69. Environmental Justice in Europe 
            Chapter 70. Environmental Justice in Asia Forthcoming by Dr. Khohchahar E. Chuluu, The University of Tokyo
            Chapter 71. Environmental Justice in Latin America and the Caribbean Forthcoming by Dr. Belen Omos Giupponi, Kingston University London
            Chapter 72. Stakeholder Engagement Forthcoming by Dr. Christian Wells, University of South Florida
Part 3c. Education and Sustainability
            Chapter 73. Environmental Education Forthcoming by Sally McPhee, Griffith University
            Chapter 74. Children and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Ria Dunkley, University of Glasgow
            Chapter 75. Informal Education and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Musarat Yasmin, University of Gujrat
            Chapter 76. K-8 Sustainability Education Forthcoming by Dr. Allison Antink-Meyer, Illinois State University
            Chapter 77. High School and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Melissa Grigione, Pace University
            Chapter 78. Higher Education for Sustainable Development:  Understanding the Concept, Roots, and Characteristis Forthcoming by Dr. Randa El Bedawy, The American University in Cairo
            Chapter 79. Sustainability at Colleges and Universities, Forthcoming by Dr. Leslie North and Cara Walters, Western Kentucky University
Part 3d. International Benchmarking and National Sustainability Planning
            Chapter 80. The Sustainable Development Goals Forthcoming by Dr. Marzia Traverso, RWTH Aachen University
            Chapter 81. International Organization for Standards ISO 26000 

            Chapter 82. Human Development Index
            Chapter 83. National Sustainability Planning:  Australian National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development Forthcoming by Dr. Michael Howes, Griffith University
            Chapter 84. National Sustainability Planning in Malaysia Forthcoming by Dr. Florianna Lendai anak Michael Mulok, University of Malaysia, Sarawak
            Chapter 85. National Sustainability Planning:  China's Experiences and Lessons Forthcoming by Dr. XiaoHu Wang, City University of Hong Kong and Dr. Jinguan Xu, Fudan University, 
Part 3e. Urban and Regional Planning and Sustainability
            Chapter 86. Background on Urban and Regional Planning Forthcoming by Dr. Constance Carr, Université du Luxembourg
            Chapter 87. Urban Approaches to Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Michelle Beiler, Bucknell University
            Chapter 88. Urban Approaches to Sustainability: Transportation and Walkability Forthcoming by Adriane Hoff, Sustainability & Beautification Committee of Wilshire Center Koreatown Neighborhood Council 
            Chapter 89. Urban Approaches to Sustainability:  Food
            Chapter 90.  Urban Approaches to Sustainability:  Zoning
            Chapter 91. Urban Approaches to Sustainability: Equity Forthcoming by Dr. Jenni Cauvain, Nottingham Trent University
            Chapter 92. Resiliency Forthcoming by Dr. Romulo Pinheiro, University of Agder
            Chapter 93. Green Building Forthcoming by Dr. Dat Doan, Auckland University of Technology
            Chapter 94. Green Infrastructure Forthcoming by Dr. Ian Mell, University of Manchester
            Chapter 95:  Regional Planning Forthcoming by Dr. Eva Durkarthofer, Delft University of Technology
            Chapter 96.  Tiny House Movement, Co-Housing, and Land Trusts Forthcoming by Dr. Elizabeth Strom, University of South Florida
            Chapter 97.  The 15-Minute City Forthcoming by Dr. Zaheer Allam, University of Paris
            Chapter 98. Individual Carbon and Environmental Footprints
            Chapter 99. Low-consumption lifestyles and wellbeing Forthcoming by Kasey Lloyd
            Chapter 100. Intentional Communities Forthcoming by Dr. Paula Escribano Castaño, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Part 4. Economics and Sustainability
            Chapter 101. Introduction to Economics and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Eloi Laurent, Stanford University
Part 4a. Business and Sustainability
            Chapter 102. Sustainable Business Management Forthcoming by Dr. Juan Castañeda-Ayarza, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas
            Chapter 103. The Circular Economy Forthcoming by Dr. David Gibbs, University of Hull
            Chapter 104. Supply Chain Management and Procurement
            Chapter 105. Benchmarking for Businesses Forthcoming by Dr. Jay Ananda, CQ University Australia
            Chapter 106. Green Fashion Forthcoming by Dr. Luis Almeida, University of Minho
            Chapter 107. Green Investing and Financial Services Forthcoming by Dr. Artie Ng, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
            Chapter 108. Green Information and Communications Forthcoming by Dr. Quang Nguyen, Waseda University
            Chapter 109. Just in Time Production and Efficiency Forthcoming by Dr. Francisco Moreira, University of Minho
            Chapter 110. Green Logistics and Transportation
            Chapter 111. Greenwashing Forthcoming by Dr. Rizanna Rosemary, Syiah Kuala University
            Chapter 112. Business Ethics Forthcoming by Dr. John Ugoani, Rhema University
Part 4b. Economic Development and Sustainability
            Chapter 113. Background on Economic Development Forthcoming by Dr. Aaron Deslatte, Indiana University
            Chapter 114. Economic Development to Protect Natural Assets
            Chapter 115. Economic Development and Equity
            Chapter 116. Green Entrepreneurship Forthcoming by Dr. Ada Domańska, Sklodowska University
            Chapter 117. Green Technology Transfer Forthcoming by Dr. Festus Fatai Adedoyen, Bournemouth University
            Chapter 118. Green Economic Incentives Forthcoming by Dr. Razvan Hoinaru, Queen Mary University of London
            Chapter 119. Microcredit Forthcoming by Dr. Elisabete Gomes Santana Félix, University of Évora
Part 4c. Regulations
            Chapter 120. Crypto-Funding of Climate Change Mitigation and Conservation Efforts Forthcoming by Dr. Zaheer Allam, University of Paris
            Chapter 121. Introduction to Environmental Regulations Forthcoming by Dr. Jason Walter, University of Tulsa
            Chapter 122. Environmental Law Forthcoming by Dr. Antonio Cardesa-Salzman and Catherine Hall, University of Stathclyde Law School
            Chapter 123. The EPA and Its Regulations Forthcoming by Dr. Aaron Elrod, University of the South
            Chapter 124. Environmental Regulations in the European Union, Forthcoming by Dr. Ingrid Behrsin, UC Davis
            Chapter 125. Environmental Regulation in Asia
            Chapter 126. Environmental Regulation in the Global South
            Chapter 127. Protecting Water and Wetlands
            Chapter 128. Protecting Plants and Animals
            Chapter 129. Protecting Air
            Chapter 130. Protecting People
Part 4d. Culture, Travel, Tourism, and Recreation and Sustainability
            Chapter 131. Culture and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. John Clammer, Jindal School of Liberal Arts and Humanities
            Chapter 132. Ecotourism
            Chapter 133. Green Conventions Forthcoming by Dr. Hung-Che Wu, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-sen University
            Chapter 134. Green Restaurants Forthcoming by Dr. Renata Zandonadi, Universidade de Brasilia
            Chapter 135. Green Hotels
            Chapter 136. Cruise Ships and Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Daniela Buzova, University of Valencia
            Chapter 137. Green Athletics and Sporting Events Forthcoming by Dr. Brian McCullough, Texas A & M University
            Chapter 138. Green Media Forthcoming by Dr. Rizanna Rosemary, Syiah Kuala University
Part 4e. Consumerism
            Chapter 139. Global Consumption Patterns
            Chapter 140. Advertising for Consumption
            Chapter 141. Impacts of Consumption Forthcoming by Dr. Nancy Bocken, Maastricht University
            Chapter 142. Hoarding
            Chapter 143. Economic Disparities
Chapter 144.  Critical Discourses on Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Talia Stough, KU Leuven
Part 4f. Tools in Sustainability Assessment
            Chapter 145. Cost Benefit Analysis Forthcoming by Dr. Florent Pratlong, University of Paris
            Chapter 146. Mapping, GIS, and Remote Sensing Forthcoming by Dr. Christopher Badurek, SUNY Cortland
            Chapter 147. Benchmarking Forthcoming by Dr. Cagatay Tasdemir, Bursa Technical University
            Chapter 148. Community Engagement Forthcoming by Dr. Christopher Hawkins, University of Central Florida
Part 5 Historical Considerations
Part 5a. Human History and Sustainability
            Chapter 149. History of the Environmental Movement Forthcoming by Dr. László Erdös, Centre for Ecological Research Hungary
            Chapter 150. Prehistoric Human Development and Sustainability Forthcoming by Patrick Roberts, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
            Chapter 151. The Archaeology of Sustainability Forthcoming by Dr. Lynne Goldstein, Michigan State University
            Chapter 152. Sustainability in the Bronze Age Forthcoming by Dr. Anna Maria Mercuri, Assunta Florenzano, and Eleanora Clò, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

            Chapter 153. Sustainability and the Industrial Revolution
Part 5b. Great Figures of the Sustainability Field (note this list will expand and these chapters will be short bios)
            Chapter 154. Carl Sauer Forthcoming by Dr. Emilie Josephine Raymer, Harvard University
            Chapter 155. H.D. Thoreau
            Chapter 156. Aldo Leopold Forthcoming by Dr. Christopher Badurek, SUNY Cortland
            Chapter 157. Rachel Carson
            Chapter 158. Zora Neale Hurston Forthcoming by Dr. Nicole Anae, CQ University, Australia
            Chapter 159. Marjorie Stoneman Douglas Forthcoming by Dr. John Ryan, Southern Cross University
            Chapter 160. Gro Brundtland Forthcoming by Dr. Anneke Ribberink, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
            Chapter 161. Michael Mann
            Chapter 162. Al Gore Forthcoming by Dr. David Marshall, Deakin University
            Chapter 163. Octavia Butler Forthcoming by Dr. Lisa-Marie Pierre, Bronx 
Community College
          Chapter 164. Bill McKibben
           Chapter 165. Dan Raven-Ellison
           Chapter 166. Francia Márquez
           Chapter 167. Vandana Shiva Forthcoming by Dr. Manisha Rao, University of Mumbai
           Chapter 168. Jan Gehl Forthcoming by Dr. Laura Scherling, Columbia University
           Chapter 169. Wangari Maathai
           Chapter 170. Paul Watson Forthcoming by Dr. Gerry Nagtzaam, Monash University
           Chapter 171. Daniel Quinn
           Chapter 172. Jane Goodall Forthcoming by Dr. László Erdös, Centre for Ecological Research Hungary

           Chapter 173. Julia Butterfly Hill
           Chapter 174. Robert Bullard
           Chapter 175. Edward Abbey Forthcoming by Dr. Alexander Menrisky, University of Connecticut
           Chapter 176. Naomi Klein Forthcoming by Dr. Nicole Anae, CQ University, Australia
           Chapter 177. E.F. Schumacher
           Chapter 178. Ray Anderson
           Chapter 179. David Brewer
Part 6. Organizations (again, this list will expand, but the text will be short in most cases)
Part 6a. International Organizations
            Chapter 180. The United Nations
            Chapter 181. The World Health Organizations
            Chapter 182. Greenpeace Forthcoming by Dr. Meredian Alam, University Brunei Darussalam
            Chapter 183. Natural Resource Defense Council Forthcoming by Dr. James Blair, Cal Poly Pomona
            Chapter 184. The Nature Conservancy
            Chapter 185. World Wildlife Fund
            Chapter 186. Slow Food International
Part 6b. National, Regional, or Local Organizations
            Chapter 187. U.S Council of Mayors
            Chapter 188. US Green Building Coalition and Passivhaus Forthcoming by Dr. Alejandro Moreno Rangel, Lancaster University
            Chapter 189. 100 Resilient Cities Forthcoming by Dr. Alessandro Coppola, Politecnico di Milano and Dr. Wolfgang Haupt, Leibniz Institute for the Research on Policy and Space
            Chapter 190. African Sustainable Energy Association
            Chapter 191. National Parks Forthcoming by Dr. Bhayu Rhama Universitas Palangka Raya
            Chapter 192. World Heritage Sites Forthcoming by Dr. Thomas Jones, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University
            Chapter 193. UNESCO Geoparks